Open Journal Systems

The Efficacy of Shiatsu Therapy at “Sea of Energy” Point on Primary Dysmenorrhea in Nursing Students

Hanan Fawzy Soliman

crossmark logo side by side horizontal



Dysmenorrhea is one of the most common gynecological disorders, affects more than half of the reproductive aged women. Women experience periodic repeated discomforts associated with menstruation can affect their daily activities. A Quasi experimental study was conducted to study the efficacy of using shiatsu therapy at "Sea of Energy" point on relieving primary dysmenorrhea. The study was conducted at College of Applied Medical Science, Shaqra University at the academic year 2015-2016. Eighty-two of nursing students at different academic levels was recruited for the study, allocated into two groups' shiatsu group (46) and non-shiatsu group (36). Three tools for data collection were used; a structured interviewing questionnaire, visual-analogue scale and follow up chart. Results of the current study revealed that, the severity of pain and the associated symptoms was decreased in the shiatsu group compared to non-shiatsu group, with a highly statistically significant difference was found between groups after using the shiatsu massage therapy. In conclusion, using shiatsu massage therapy at "Sea of Energy" point was effective on relieving primary dysmenorrhea pain and associated symptoms for women. The study recommended that, considering the shiatsu therapy as one of the effective therapeutic options for women suffering primary dysmenorrhea. Further studies are needed to investigate the effect of shiatsu points in a large population and on other health problems.  

Keywords: Primary Dysmenorrhea, Shiatsu.

Full Text:




Unsal.A, Ayranci.U, Tozun.M, Arslan.G, & Calik.E (2010): Prevalence of dysmenorrhea and its effect on quality of life among a group of female university students. Upsala journal of medical sciences, 115(2), 138-145.‏

Peters.M (2012): Family Medical Encyclopedia. Dysmenorrhea. Published by Dorling Kindersley Ltd. (ISBN: 978-1-4053- 2987-3).

Jaafarpour.M, Hatefi.M, Khani.A, & Khajavikhan.J (2015): Comparative effect of cinnamon and Ibuprofen for treatment of primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR, 9(4), QC04.‏

Sharma.E, RanaA.K, & Singh.A (2014): An interventional study to assess the effectiveness of acupressure at SP6 point on dysmenorrhea among B. Sc Nursing students. Nursing and Midwifery Research Journal, 10(4), 145-156.‏

Ggharlloghis, Torkzahrani, Akbarzadeh (2012): The Effects of Alternative Therapy on Severity of Primary Dysmenorrhea, Patient Prefer Adherence, 6: 137-142

Monga.A(2006): Gynecology by Ten Teachers, The Normal Menstrual Cycle, 18th Ed, Library of Congress 48-49

Gordon.S (2015): Shiatsu and Acupressure Treatment for Dysmenorrhea

Beresford-Cooke. C (2003): Shiatsu Theory and practice., Edinburgh: Elsevier Science Ltd, 2Google Scholar

Robinson.N, Lorenc.A, & Liao.X (2011): The evidence for Shiatsu: a systematic review of Shiatsu and acupressure. BMC complementary and alternative medicine, 11(1), 88.‏

Long. A.F (2008): The effectiveness of shiatsu: findings from a cross-European, prospective observational study. The journal of alternative and complementary medicine, 14(8), 921-930.‏

Long A. F. (2009): The potential of complementary and alternative medicine in promoting well-being and critical health literacy: a prospective, observational study of shiatsu. BMC complementary and alternative medicine, 9(1), 19.‏

Berek.JS, Novak.E. (2007): Berek & Novak's gynecology. J. S. Berek (Ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins;14th Ed, 391-393

Bipasha.M (2015): Top 9 Acupressure Points to Treat Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS).

El Gilany. A. H, Badawi.K, El Fedawy.S (2005): Epidemiology of dysmenorrhea among adolescent students in Mansoura, Egypt.‏ Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal ;( 11): 155-163

Gould. D (2001): Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Journal of Clinical Nursing; 10:697-706

Sun.W, Chou. C. P, Stacy.A, Unger.J, & Gallaher. P (2007): SAS and SPSS macros to calculate standardized Cronbach’s alpha using the upper bound of the phi coefficient for dichotomous items. Behavior research methods, 39(1), 71-81.‏

Tavakol.M, and Dennick. R (2011): Making sense of Cronbach's alpha.International journal of medical education, 2, 53.‏

Mohamed.H, and Neaem.S (2013): The Effect of Dysmenorrhea on Quality of Life of Technical Secondary Schools Girls. Medical Journal of Cairo University, 81(2), 83-89.‏

Wong.CL, Lai.KY, Tes.HM (2010): Effects of shiatsu on menstrual distress in adolescent girls, Apr, 19(7-8): 998-1007

Mirbagher.AN, Adib.HM, Mosaebi.F (2011): The effects of shiatsu on primary dysmenorrhea, a randomized controlled trial, Complement Ther Clin Pract, Feb, 17(1): 33-

Mohamed. H. E. S., Salem. S. M., and Al-Agamy. Z. A. K (2015): Effect of using Femi-band acupressure on primary dysmenorrhea: Randomized controlled trial. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 5(12), 49.‏

Proctor, M., Murphy, P. A., Pattison, H. M., Suckling, J. A., & Farquhar, C. (2007): Behavioural interventions for dysmenorrhea. The Cochrane Library.‏

Shin, H. S., & Song, Y. A. (2005): The effect of p6 acupressure for symptom control in pregnant women having hyperemesis gravidarum. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi, 35(3), 593-601.

Hsieh LL, Kuo CH, Lee LH, Yen AM, Chien KL, Chen TH (2006): Treatment of low back pain by acupressure and physical therapy: randomised controlled trial. BMJ, 332: 696-700. 10.1136/bmj.38744.672616.AE.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar


  • There are currently no refbacks.